The beginning of the French revolution
Louis XVI wearing a Phrygian cap, symbol of the revolutionaries (1792).
The storming of the Bastille was the symbol of the victory of the French people against the Monarchy. What started as a revolt became a Revolution that will change the face of France's policy for ever.
The National Guard was quickly formed, composed of more than 40,000 people directed by Lafayette. They adopted the tri-color rosettes as the new symbol of the Revolution. The White, the color of the Monarchy is encircled by the Blue and the Red, the colors of Paris. Those three colors are now the ones of the French flag.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
On August 26th, 1789 the National Assembly voted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, defining a set of individual and collective rights for all the people, regardless of their estate.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 27th 1789).
The King had to sign this declaration which led to many further political and economic reforms that heavily diminished his own powers.
The King's eviction
On October 5th, 1789 Louis XVI was forced by a group of 4,000 rioters, mostly hungry women, to move out of Versailles and to take residence under the revolutionaries watch at the "Tuileries", in the heart of Paris.
In March 1790, Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobins club, one of the more radical movements of the new assembly, and became rapidly one of their most respected members.
The Varennes escape
Louis XVI comes back in Paris after his escape in Varennes. Author: Jean Duplessi - Bertaux
Unwilling to stay prisoner of his own people in Paris, Louis XVI tried to flee to his wife's native country, Austria. On June 21st, 1791 Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and their children dressed as bakers and hit the road. But the rumors of the King's escape spread quickly across France and the royal refugees were recognized and captured few miles from the German border, in Varennes.
When they were returned to Paris, the population was all but sympathetic towards the traitors. Danton and Marat launch a campaign to end definitely the King's political power. They wanted to abolish the Constitutional Monarchy and start a new political era where all the power would be given to the Assembly.
On July 17th, 1791 people gathered in the Tuileries to support Danton. But the Assembly, especially Robespierre, considered that such a decision would put the revolution into peril and asked the National Guard to end this uprising. The Marquis de La Fayette and his men opened fire on the crowd and hundreds of people were killed. This event marked the first major discordance amongst the revolutionaries. Robespierre was accused by La Fayette of organizing this riot. He resigned from his position but gained a huge recognition from the French population.
The war with Austria
In April 1792, France entered in war with Austria. Joseph Rouget de Lisle sang the Marseillaise for the first time to encourage the French troops during the war. Later, this song became France's National Anthem.
Lots of tensions from military losses in the East of France pushed the parliament to propose some reforms and the King used the rest of his powers to veto some of them. People accused the King of willing to help his brother-in-law, the King of Germany, to defeat the French.
The rise of Robespierre
The tension was rising between the protectors of the king and the revolutionaries. In August 1792, Robespierre joined the "Commune de Paris", a strong revolutionary government formed after the storming of the Bastille. He presented a petition where he demanded that La Fayette should be dismissed and declared a traitor. The "accuse" started an exile in Eastern Europe.
On August 10th, 1792 the "Sans-Culotte", a group formed of Parisian rioters who wanted to protest against the aristocracy, helped by the newly formed "Commune insurrectionnelle de Paris", stormed the Tuileries. After 800 years of reign, and in a bath of blood, the Capetian Monarchy was defeated.
Three days later, Louis XVI was officially arrested and sent to prison. The King had a trial in front of the Convention which decided to send him to the Guillotine in January 1793. He was accused of High Treason and Crimes against the State.
The French Republic
On September 21st, 1792 the Convention succeed to the Assembly, France became a republic.
Execution of Louis XVI
Beheading of Louis XVI in Paris.